• 2017 | Author: David Harland

    Never again - International Intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    This study is one of a series commissioned as part of an ongoing UK Government Stabilisation Unit project relating to elite bargains and political deals. The paper explores the international intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its effectiveness in fostering and sustaining political deals and elite bargains; and whether or not these political deals and elite bargains have helped reduce violence, increased local, regional and national stability and contributed to the strengthening of the relevant political settlement.

  • 2009 | Author: R.Kostic (Upsalla University, in support of the Mediation Support Unit, Department of Political Affairs, United Nations)

    Reconciling the Past and the Present: Evaluating Dayton Peace Accords 1995

    This study sets out to examine what lessons can be learned from the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (The Dayton Peace Agreement) 1995, with particular relevance to inter-ethnic reconciliation. The study identifies a number of important lessons, and presents them in relation to the process of negotiations, designing of provisions, and implementation of the agreement.

  • 1999 | Author: B.O'Leary (Fordham International Law Journal)

    The Nature of the Agreement: the Northern Ireland Peace Agreement

    This article summarizes the provisions of the Belfast or Good Friday Agreement (1998), its legislative enactment in the United Kingdom's Northern Ireland Act (1998) and the treaty between the Governments of the UK and Ireland (1999). The consociational or power-sharing character of the Agreement is explored, as are its confederal and federalizing possibilities. The article also seeks to explain the political settlement, the peace process and the novel d'Hondt procedures for allocating positions in the cabinet. In addition it anticipates the difficulties in the implementation of the Agreement.


  • 2011 | Author: T.Kwasi Tieku

    Lessons Learned from Mediation by an African Regional Organization

    This paper examines the Organization of African Unity, now the African Union’s (O/AU) mediation of Burundi conflicts between 1993 and 2009 to help observers of African international relations gain a deeper understanding of lessons that can be learned from mediation by African regional organizations. The paper argues that many novel conflict resolution tools, including the creation of an effective ad hoc regional institution to provide political support to the mediator, emerged from the mediation processes.

  • 2009 | Author: E.Lindenmayer, J.L.Kaye (International Peace Institute)

    A Choice for Peace? The Story of Forty-One Days of Mediation in Kenya

    This paper gives a detailed account of the forty-one-day mediation process in Kenya led by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan which culminated in the signing of the ‘Agreement on the Principles of Partnership of the Coalition Government’. It pays particular attention to the factors that made Kenya accept international mediation, and it concentrates on the role and comparative advantages of the African Union, as well as the unique and undivided support of the many stakeholders, including the international community. The paper also describes the series of conflict-resolution strategies and tools used by the Panel of Eminent African Personalities, and it provides a set of conclusions and recommendations that reflect what kinds of lessons can be learned from this case of successful mediation. 

  • 2009 | Author: J.Brosché (Upsalla University, in support of the Mediation Support Unit, Department of Political Affairs, United Nations)

    Sharing Power: Enabling Peace? Evaluating Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2005

    This study sets out to examine what lessons can be learned from Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2005, with particular relevance to power-sharing. The report describes ten lessons learned, and these are divided into the three aspects of process, provisions and implementation. 

  • 2009 | Author: D.Nilsson (Upsalla University, in support of the Mediation Support Unit, Department of Political Affairs, United Nations)

    Crafting a Secure Peace: Evaluating Liberia’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2003

    This report evaluates Liberia’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in 2003, and presents lessons learned that can be of importance when creating future peace accords. In particular, this study focuses on how the peace accord addressed the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants, as well as the restructuring of the army and police forces.

  • 2006 | Author: L.Nathan (Crisis States Research Center, LSE)

    No Ownership, No Peace: the Darfur Peace Agreement

    In the context of the Darfur Peace Agreement, this paper examines the deadline diplomacy and the failure of the AU and its international partners to distinguish between getting the parties to sign a peace agreement and obtaining their genuine consent to its terms and execution. It also considers the psycho-political dynamics, balance of power and other factors that gave rise to the parties’ reluctance to enter into real negotiations.


  • 2009 | Author: P.Wallensteen, M.Eriksson (Upsalla University, in support of the Mediation Support Unit, Department of Political Affairs, United Nations)

    Negotiating Peace: Lessons from Three Comprehensive Peace Agreements

    This report assesses practical and theoretical challenges from three comprehensive peace processes: Bosnia and Herzegovina – the Dayton Agreement (1995), Liberia – the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2003), the North-South conflict in Sudan – ‘ The Naivasha Agreement’ (2005). The aim of this report is to single out general features in these agreements, and from the peace processes that preceded them.

The Americas

  • 1995 | Author: A. De Soto, G. Del Castillo (Global Governance)

    Implementation of Comprehensive Peace Agreements: Staying the Course in El Salvador

    This article describes the peace process in El Salvador and explores how it belongs to a new breed of multidisciplinary UN operations that seeks to address the root causes of conflict in a comprehensive and integrated manner. The authors offer a synopsis of the different peace agreements in El Salvador negotiated under UN auspices. They argue that utmost attention must be given to the implementation of the aims of these agreements in order to ensure respect for human life, to find a solution for the displaced, to reintegrate the former combatants into civilian life and to establish a stable and growing economy in post-conflict societies.